L’amnesia per i colori

Nel precedente scritto, ci siamo soffermati sull’agnosia per i colori. Si tratta di una patologia nella quale il paziente perde la capacità di riconoscere i colori e di denominarli correttamente Per spiegare questa patologia abbiamo ipotizzato che la memoria dei colori sia strutturata in un reticolo, la cui funzione è di discriminare un colore dall’altro rendendoli significativi.

L’amnesia per i colori, invece, è caratterizzata dal fatto che il paziente non riesce a rievocare il colore di un oggetto sia in prove verbali sia in prove visive, come quelle di colorare disegni di oggetti aventi un colore tipico o riconoscere se un disegno è colorato in modo corretto.

Per spiegare questa patologia differenziamo la discriminazione intrinseca dei colori dalla discriminazione estrinseca dei colori. La discriminazione estrinseca concerne colori diversi; la discriminazione intrinseca concerne il colore dello stesso “oggetto” che si modifica nel tempo. Consideriamo un frutto, per esempio una banana. Il colore di questo frutto si modifica nel tempo. Quando la banana è acerba, è di colore verde; quando è matura, è gialla. Il passaggio nel tempo da “verde” a “giallo” è designato con un verbo “ingiallire”. Con i verbi, quindi, designiamo una discriminazione intrinseca allo stesso ente.

La banana, a livello visivo, consta di una forma e di un colore. Il colore, codificato nel reticolo dei colori, è supportato da uno spazio non formalizzato. Nella corteccia infero/temporale il colore, legandosi con la forma, si formalizza, cioè assume la forma della banana. Il colore formalizzato è, per il sistema parmenideo, un’unità. Se noi osserviamo attentamente una banana, ci accorgiamo che sono presenti nella sua superficie alcune sfumature di colori diversi (figura 1)

figura 1) Colore formalizzato della banana. Il colore della banana non è uniforme. Sulla sua superficie sono presenti sfumature di colori diversi.

Nella corteccia infero/temporale queste sfumature si legano una all’altra formando un “unico colore”, delimitato spazialmente dalla forma della foglia (figura 2).

figura 2) unità formalizzata di sfumature di colori. Il colore di una banana consta di una unità di sfumature tenute insieme dalla forma spaziale.

Tutto il sistema parmenideo si basa sul principio dell’unità. Più colori si legano in un unico colore formalizzato; più forme si legano in un’unica forma; più tempi si legano in un unico tempo verbale. Ricordiamo che Parmenide affermava l’unità e indivisibilità dell’”essere”.

Il concetto di banana è costituito dalla forma e dal colore giallo formalizzato (figura 3).

figura 3) concetto di banana. Il concetto di banana è codificato da un neurone su cui proiettano la forma e il colore giallo formalizzato.

Il concetto di un oggetto non è statico ma dinamico. In ambito visivo, sia la forma sia il colore formalizzato si modificano nel tempo. Il cambiamento di forma e di colore formalizzato è una discriminazione intrinseca temporale. Nella figura in basso notiamo una foglia di vite come appare in primavera (figura 4).

figura 4) Foglia di vite in primavera. La foglia di vite in primavera appare verde e con una precisa forma

In basso, la stessa foglia di vite vista in autunno dopo che è caduta dalla pianta (figura 5).

figura 5) Foglia di vite in autunno. La stessa foglia di vita percepita in autunno ci appare diversa per colore e forma

Il concetto di foglia, essendo dinamico, è codificato da un singolo neurone su cui convergono le informazioni concernenti il variare nel tempo verbale della forma e del colore formalizzato (figura 6).

figura 6) concetto di foglia di vite. Il concetto di foglia di vite è codificato da un neurone su cui proiettano la forma e il colore formalizzato che variano ambedue nel tempo.

I colori formalizzati e temporalizzati sono differenziati e resi significativi attraverso un reticolo associativo. Nella figura 7 è illustrato il reticolo delle sfumature di verde formalizzato che si modifica nel tempo.

figura 7) reticolo concernente le sfumature di verde formalizzate. Ciascuna sfumatura è dinamica, cioè si modifica nel tempo.

Questo reticolo è memorizzato nella corteccia infero/temporale. Se è lesa quest’area, il paziente risulta affetto da amnesia per i colori.

L’amnesia per i colori è un danno al reticolo di colori formalizzati che si modificano nel tempo. L’agnosia per i colori è un danno al reticolo dei colori non formalizzati e invarianti nel tempo. In basso è illustrato il reticolo delle sfumature di verde non formalizzato e invariante nel tempo (figura 8).

figura 8) reticolo concernente le sfumature di verde non formalizzate. Ciascuna sfumatura è statica, cioè non si modifica nel tempo.

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